ICOMOS, the International Council on Monuments & Sites has recently been holding their 18th General assembly in Florence, Italy.
During this meeting, a resolution (Resolution 18GA 2014/40) was passed:
To support the mediation process proposed by Greece for the Reunification of the Parthenon Marbles on the basis of UNESCO’s 2010 mediation and to encourage both parties (Greece and United Kingdom) to open a fruitful dialogue aiming at a mutually acceptable solution.
From the Greek Ministry of Culture
DRAFT RESOLUTIONS – ICOMOS 2014
Dr. ATHANASIOS NAKASIS
PRESIDENT ICOMOS GREECE
Dr. ELENA KORKA
ICOMOS GREECE – International Issues
General Director of Antiquities and Cultural Heritage
Hellenic Ministry of Culture
BACKGROUND INFORMATION AND JUSTIFICATION:
In the 19th century Lord Elgin removed integral architectural sculptures from the frieze, the metopes and the pediments from the Parthenon. The Parthenon Marbles that are on display at the British Museum make up approximately 60% of the total remaining sculptural material of the monument. The need for their reunification with the other 40%, now exhibited in the Acropolis Museum in Athens, is a cultural desideratum. It will be to the benefit of every visitor (scholar or not), who seeks to view the Parthenon and its historical environment. The issue of the Parthenon Marbles is continuously on the agenda of the Committee for the Promotion of the Return of Cultural Property to its Countries of Origin (ICPRCP) since 1984. Twenty two (22) Committees all over the world were founded in support of the reunification, while polls carried out through the years, show the high public interest on the issue.
For many years Greece has requested from the British Government on various occasions and on a consistent basis the reunification of the Parthenon Marbles on the basis of collaboration and good will. This is probably the most famous and longstanding request of cultural heritage ever. It concerns this most exquisite monument of classical Athens and the most representative manifestation of the classical spirit.
At a meeting held between the Greek Minister of Culture and Sports and the Director General of UNESCO, in July 2013, the former asked UNESCO for its good offices, in order for Greece and the UK to enter into mediation for the issue of the Parthenon Marbles. UNESCO sent a letter to the Secretary of State of the U.K., Mr. William Hague, the Secretary of Culture, Ms Maria Miller and the Director of the British Museum, Mr. Neil Mc Gregor, informing them of Greece’s request that UNESCO examine the possibility of resorting to the process of mediation as foreseen by the relevant bylaws of the Organization, in order to reach an amicable solution concerning the Parthenon Marbles.
Moreover, on 1st and 2nd October representatives of the Greek Ministry of Culture and Sports met within the context of the Unesco Intergovernmental Committee for the Promotion of the Return of Cultural Property to its Countries of Origin (ICPRCP) with representatives of the British Government in order to discuss the Parthenon Marbles issue. The main point of the bilateral discussions this time was the lack of reaction of the UK to the invitation sent in August 2013 by UNESCO in regard to the mediation with Greece on the Parthenon Marbles issue.
The meeting resulted in a consensus, adopted by the Committee. The Recommendation invites Britain to consider the proposal for mediation.
In this framework UNESCO will use its good offices in order to facilitate further meetings between the two sides.
It is the first time that Member States of Unesco are invited to mediation since these rules have only been adopted in 2010.
The Rules of Procedure for Mediation and Conciliation are conceived under the general principles of equity, impartiality and good faith, which are intended to promote harmonious and fair resolution for disputes concerning the restitution of cultural property. Each State is invited to nominate and submit to the Secretariat the names of two individuals who may serve as mediators and conciliators. Their qualification is contingent on their competency and mastery in matters of restitution, resolution dispute and other specific characteristics of the protection of cultural property.
The rules of procedure are meant to be complementary to the work of the Intergovernmental Committee. It is noted that the text adopted by the Intergovernmental Committee represents a legal tool that does not constitute a binding normative obligation.
Regarding the above, the National Committee of ICOMOS Hellenic, deems it necessary to request the approval of the following proposal regarding the Greek request for the reunification of the Parthenon Marbles in order, for the integrity of the monument, to be restored in its historic, cultural and natural environment:
1. Use of the procedure of mediation
2. UK should enter into mediation with Greece on the Parthenon Marbles issue, on the basis of UNESCO’s 2010 mediation rules.
Mediation is a new procedure, which is not binding and will encourage collaboration and discussion between the two sides to find a win-win solution.
RESOLUTION ADDRESSED TO:
The resolution addresses the following public agencies and other competent institutions:
1. Greek Ministry of Culture and Sports
2. UK Ministry of Culture, Media and Sports
3. National Committees for UNESCO
AGENCY RESPONSIBLE FOR IMPLEMENTING THE RESOLUTION:
1. State Public Services (e.g. Ministries of Culture)
3. ICOMOS (National Committees)